jueves, 28 de marzo de 2013

Aprendizaje Dialógico a través de un Proyecto Socioeducativo: Un proceso de estudiantes universitarios.

Disponible en el siguiente link:


La educación Superior es considerada formadora de profesionales y productora de conocimiento; algunas Universidades buscan ser más inclusivas al generar cambios en el interior de su institucionalidad, como la implementación del Constructivismo y Socioconstructivismo desde los cuales se observa una tendencia de trabajo a niveles cognitivos e individuales. Sin embargo, en algunas prácticas de estos enfoques se lograba ver interacciones que generaban aprendizaje donde colocaban a los estudiantes en otros roles mediados por el diálogo; por lo que se resalta el interés en ahondar en el entendimiento de producción de aprendizaje dialógico. Para responder a este cuestionamiento nos acercamos a la Psicología Comunitaria (PC), la Educación Popular (EP), que coloca en un lugar privilegiado al diálogo, y para desencadenarlo apostamos por la elaboración de un proyecto socioeducativo (PSE) que será un Encuentro Estudiantil, para poder comprender ¿Cómo se produce aprendizaje dialógico en los estudiantes universitarios que organizan y participan de un proyecto socioeducativo a partir de sus discursos y prácticas?

A través de un enfoque cualitativo se llevó a cabo un proceso de Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP) en el cual una serie de entrevistas y observaciones Participante produjeron información para analizar el discurso de estudiantes que participaron de la organización y ejecución de un PSE implementado en la Universidad del Desarrollo del Estado de Puebla, en México. El estudio se divide en dos Fases, una de producción de datos, consta de la etapa de producción y la etapa de Práctica del Encuentro, mientras que la Fase II corresponde al análisis de contenido.

Se identificaron cuatro dimensiones que se constituyen en el proceso de aprendizaje dialógico:

La unidad de Aprendizaje Dialógico es el grupo; la importancia va desde su conformación, la disposición para construirlo, el ambiente grupal, la conformación de una identidad compartida y la existencia de una tarea común que articula la grupalidad.

El Aprendizaje Dialógico es generado a partir de la participación en un espacio que promueve el diálogo y lo coloca como motor de aprendizaje. Éste diálogo se presenta de manera pública, privada o consigo mismo de manera que se propicia el “escuchar y ser escuchado”, articulado por la pregunta generadora de aprendizajes, la cual ha de ser una pregunta real, es decir, que aún no tenga respuestas por parte de los/as implicados/as.

Las relaciones de saber en la producción del Aprendizaje Dialógico se hacen presentes: los roles de Asesores y de estudiantes se hacen rotativos en una relación horizontal donde la enseñanza aparece como “mostrar con acciones”, aparecen nuevos roles en las/os estudiantes quienes denotan aprender de la experiencia.

El Aprendizaje Dialógico indica su relevancia a partir de la utilidad que los aprendizajes puedan tener en la vida cotidiana de las personas en aprendizaje. Es así como se vincula la formación académica con el desarrollo de sus contexto en un proceso que, pareciera, fomentar el cambio pues se muestran tendientes a “hacer algo” por transformarse a sí mismos y a su alrededor. 

De esta manera el aprendizaje es visto como un medio para mejorar su calidad de vida. Con este estudio se reconoce al proyecto socioeducativo como un espacio generativo de aprendizaje dialógico. Es así que se posiciona a la Psicología Comunitaria y a la IAP en la investigación y la práctica de la Educación; así mismo se fomenta la Interdisciplinariedad y se demuestra la actualidad de la Educación
Popular.

martes, 26 de marzo de 2013

Far Away, Different and Similar Cultures


by Saúl Miranda Ramos

The pre-Colombian Cultures in Latin America have some counterparts in their cosmogony despite the distance, the time, and the language they have had. I ignore which one was the device, or whether it was without it, let this people to perform their Philosophies with huge differences but with several points in common. Incas, Mapuches, Aztecs and Nahuas have lots of linked topics which could be scrutinized since some symbolisms such as the “Chakana”, the “Cultrún”, the “Fejeuary-Meyer” codices and the “Voladores” dance.


The Chakana Cross
The first Cultural symbol highlighted is the Chakana which is a millenarian Inca Symbol and belongs to the ancient Andean cultures in Peru. It´s origins come from the astronomy and geometry related to the universe. Besides, the figure of the “Chakana” is a squared stepped cross with 12 sharp ends in its sides looked as a pyramid; In addition, it seems like the constellation “Cross from the South”, also makes reference to the sun. The cross indicates 4 opposite sides, 4 cardinal points, and 4 seasons, so each segment has 3 steps which represents 3 worlds: the God´s one, the human´s one and the world of the dead persons. Furthermore, the center represents the twoness and the emptiness, the unimaginable, unknown, and so on. Another, its name comes from the Quechua Language that means “Bridge to the high”, for it is the union between the under and the high, land and sun, inferior and superior. Also, it provides information about the earth cycles and the cosmogony of the Andean cultures such as heaven and earth, sun and moon, north and south, up and down, time and space, feminine and masculine. Moreover, it works as a calendar and helps people to guide them in sowing and harvest, so May 3th is the Chakana´s day; perhaps since in these days the constellation “Cross from South” are straighten in a perfect cross and it is allied with corn harvest. Finally, the Chakana has been venerated by ancient Peruvians, and nowadays lots of crops possess chakanas for the benefit of them.


The Cultrún
In the other hand, the “cultrun”, which is a Mapuche Symbol culturally produced in the South of the actual Chile and Argentina, provides an interpretation of the world addressed in the indigenous vision of Mapuche community. The Cultrún communicates the three levels of the universe: above land where gods live, in the middle lands in which we live, and under the land where is habited by the evil. Also, the interpretation of the Cultrún comes in the opposite sense of the clockwise and it is started in the lower part. The first interpretation is about the moon and its states. The starter is the crescent moon followed by the full moon, the waning moon and the new moon. Another reading of the Cultrún refers to the rising sun, the midday sun, the twilight and the dark sun read since bottom against the clock hands. The third discourse has to do with the land elements such that the lower semicircle represents earth, the second reflects fire, the third illustrates wind, and finally the last one figures water. Furthermore, people from South are represented in the centered nethermost, in the place of the full moon are the people from east, continuing with people from North at the top, and People from the sea belong to the left side. The last part is one which is placed in harmony with sowing, and matches with the sun periods. The place of dark sun matches with the outbreaks time, the next with the rains time, followed by fallow time and ending with abundance time. The relationship between the Cultrún and the Chakana is the cross figure in which both of them are based and the relevance in four points as in cardinals.


Fejéuáry-Mayer codices
Meanwhile in the Mexican Cultures the Fejéuáry-Mayer codices and the voladores dance show us the directions of the universe. In the cross displayed, the most important part is the East, also called Tlahuactlampa. This side is the origin of the light, were the sun rise; also is the place of Quetzalcoatl. Next to, at the West Cihuatlampa is the head of women, is the place where go dead women in labor. Above, to the north is Mictlampa that is the place of the dead people, the place of Mictlantecuctli and Mictlantecihuatl. Beneath, to the south is Huitziltampa also known as thorn place, that is the place of the hummingbird where rain comes and the place of silence. In the highest part are Xohuali, Ejecatl, Citlani Cueitl, Tonantzin, Coyolxauhqui whom are the population of the universe, suppliers of life, and the divinity that invent itself. Among them there are Day (Totatzin), father sun (Tonatiuh), Night (Tonantzin, Yohuali), and mother moon (Mestli). Beyond, is the existence of Tonantzin, Tlali, Coatlicue who are Mother of land, the fertile, and the woman of the jade skirt with serpent figures. Nevertherless in the current context of Mexico, voladores dance tell us how to worship to the sun asking for a good harvest in a closer place to the sun (at the top of a high tree trunk). There, a square is placed as a mechanism to descend where 4 cardinal points and a center are represented by a person. The dancers are wearing brilliant color clothes as tropical birds, so the music is produced by a little flute and a drum producing sounds close the singing of birds. Finally, each person in this ritual throw himself to the space to fly, for perform 13 turns which whether it is multiplied for the 4 persons the result is 52 (the number of years of the indigenous calendar).

Voladores Dance

Despite the distance, the time, these cultures have similarities, yet we don´t know how they have communicated each other or not; but it is true they are astronomers and check for long times the movements of the stars. As an example, the Cross of South is present un many other cultures and countries such as the flags of Australia, Brazil, New Zeland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Argentina, Tierra de Fuego Argentina, Magallanes and Tierra de Fuego Chile, between others. That is why Indigenous from Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Australia are considerate so culturally different and so similar. 

A cross in the altar of the dead people day in Mexico

Magallanes Flag, Chile

Flafg of Papua, New Guinea

Flag of tierra de Fuego, Antartida, Argentina

Flag of Samoa

Flag of New Zeland

Flag of Brazil

Flag of Australia

martes, 5 de marzo de 2013

A Woman of very Red Heart


 by Saúl Miranda Ramos

Gladys Marín Millie

A long of the history of humanity there are a lot of important women who have contributed in the establishment of nations and its subsequent economy, education, culture, politic, health, and many others. In most cases they are not acknowledged and their production has been invisibilized; however, men and women have enjoyed the influences of the work of women. One renowned woman in Latin America is the Chilean Gladys Marín who was a very red hearth woman.

Since her Childhood and teen years Gladys was already a noted girl. She was born in Curepto, Chile in 1941, and was a daughter of a farmer and a teacher. Since her father left home leaving the family when she was 3 years old, the rest of the family had to move to Talagante. In this place, she studied the elementary school, and years after she moved again; but now to Santiago to study the “Normal[1]”. During her studies, some teachers used to say about her, she was a rebel.

Soon, in her young years Gladys started her political career. Meanwhile she was studying; she was designated as delegate of the class. Moreover, in these years she was invited to participate in the social organization “working class youth” which is also called “J”; and started student mobilizations. In 1958 she was enrolled in the Communist Party and the Chilean “J”. Soon, she met Jorge Muñoz who became her husband. Furthermore, she was elected secretary on the “J” when she was 22, congresswoman as a first time in 1965, organized protests against imperialism since 1967 until 1969, lean the 4th postulation of Allende to the Chilean Presidency and won with the government of the Popular Union.

 Afterward, her multiple activities were stopped by the coup d'etat led by Augusto Pinochet in 1973. The General established the bloodiest dictatorship in Latin America. By the time Pinochet was attacking the government building, Palacio de la Moneda, Gladys Marín addressed a speech to the Chilean population through Radio Magallanes: Each one since their fighting place and the moral high, we are going to defend what the people have won.

          After the starting of the dictatorship, the really hard repression and persecution forced to Gadys, and all communists, to proceed to clandestine. She was exiled, so never knew about her husband when he disappeared, how much he was tortured, and when he was killed. He is one of the 1198 missing people caused by the killer General Augusto Pinochet. In 1978, she had to enter to Chile with false identity and Spanish passport because Gladys was one of the 100 of people most seek by the military in Chile. Even though, she led the social resistance for almost 12 years; when the worst thing was that she couldn´t meet with her sons. Once, she followed, since far, one of them and she thought: he is so tall and so beautiful.

          Until this period, the dynamic of the Communists was in a defense position. When Gladys came back from Moscow she proposed to change to the political of attack. She lean the Popular Rebellion of Mass Politic and establish the patriotic front Manuel Rodríguez. Marín supported the try to kill Pinochet in Cajón del Maipo, so she declared: The rebellion and all kind of battle is legal, even the armed combat. As a result, the dictator responded with more repression, and he ordered the massacre of the left-wing leaders. In 1988 there was a plebiscite: Pinochet wanted to stay at the power for 9 years more. Gladys promoted the “NO” to Pinochet in this consultation and the dictatorship in Chile finished.

By the time the dictatorship had finished, Gladys Marín was candidate to Senator, and candidate to President of the Republic of Chile; so she was the first woman to be applied to this position in her country. Also, she became President of the Communist Party in Chile. Gladys was defendant by Pinochet based on defamation, and went to jail for 2 years. She was the first person in sue Pinochet because the violation of human rights; as a result, Pinochet was judged by first time. Gladys Marín, every time and everywhere, was a rebel. She used to challenge the National Police when she was attacked by them. She never stopped to persecute to Pinochet and accuse the complicity of the USA in the dictatorship in Chile.

          The illness and the dead of Gladys were seen coming in 2003. She gave a speech in front of La Moneda addressed to Salvador Allende remembering the 30th years of the coup d'etat. This year, a brain tumor was detected in Gladys, and she was tended in Cuba and Sweden. In addition, she wrote her book “Life is today” where she reflects about the possibility of another world with equal human beings, freedom, and fraternity: a future given birth by millions of people that were remained in the road of life, disappeared by hunger, social exclusion and death.

Gladys Marín died March 6th, 2005 in Santiago de Chile. She was a leader woman committed with the fight of people to the access to a better life, and wellbeing. There is no doubt; she is an example of courage for Latin American women and men of nowadays.

Comrade Gladys Marín: PRESENT!
Comrade Gladys Marín: PRESENT!
Comrade Gladys Marín: PRESENT!

Now and ever!



[1] In Latin America, Normal is an educational center where people study to become a teacher.